A CCJA  ANNOTATED EXAMPLE OF DIRECT EXAMINATION
FROM THE "CHICAGO NURSES" MASS MURDER CASE

CORAZON PIEZA AMURAO - SOLE SURVIVOR 
IDENTIFIES THE KILLER OF 8 NURSES

PEOPLE OF ILLINOIS V. RICHARD SPECK

The facts:  On July 13, 1966, eight young women were murdered in their townhouse residence in the City of Chicago. The principal witness for the prosecution was Corazon Amurao, a 4-foot 10, 23-year-old native of the Philippines, who was in Chicago as an exchange nurse.  She lived in the townhouse with seven other women, all of whom were either exchange nurses or student nurses. On the night of July 13, 1966, at about 11 o'clock, she was awakened by a knock on her bedroom door and upon opening the door was confronted by the defendant, Richard Franklin Speck.

Miss Amurao and her roommate fled to another bedroom and the two women, together with a woman into whose bedroom they fled, ran into a closet and closed the door.  They remained there for several minutes and then heard a female voice asking them to come out of the closet. This unidentified person said that the man was not going to harm anyone. When the three left the closet, Miss Amurao saw the defendant holding another woman around the waist and two other women standing in the room near him. The defendant, who still had a gun, directed the six women to sit on the floor and they complied with his request. One of them asked the defendant what he wanted and he said that he wanted money to go to New Orleans. The women said that they would give him money and the defendant permitted three of them who lived in the bedroom to stand up and get money from their purses. Another said that she had money in her purse in another room and at the defendant's request all of the women walked to the other room where the woman handed some money to the defendant, after which they went back to the bedroom where they had been seated. They then heard a female voice downstairs and soon thereafter another woman came upstairs and entered the bedroom where she was confronted by the defendant and directed to sit down. The defendant asked this woman for money and she handed him some.

The defendant then cut a bed sheet into strips and commenced tying up each of the women.  As he was tying the fifth one, the downstairs door bell rang. The defendant directed Miss Amurao and another woman to accompany him downstairs where Miss Amurao opened the front door. There was no one at the door and the defendant and the two women went back upstairs. The defendant then finished tying up all of the women, after which he untied one of them and led her out of the room.  While the defendant and this woman were out of the room two other women came into the bedroom where all of the women were tied.

The defendant came in immediately thereafter and directed these two women to follow him out of the room. Miss Amurao heard noises as if these women were struggling and in about 20 minutes the defendant returned for another.  Miss Amurao hid under a bed. When the defendant came to the last of the women, with the exception of Miss Amurao, he undressed her and got on top of her on one of the beds, after which he took this woman out of the room. Miss Amurao remained under the bed for about two hours until an alarm clock went off at 5:30 in the morning. She then managed to untie herself and inspect the other rooms in the building.  She saw one body in the bathroom, three bodies in one bedroom and three bodies in another bedroom and went to the window and screamed for help.  When a police officer arrived on the scene he discovered the body of another woman on the living room couch. (Names and last resting places of the 8 student nurses)

A pathologist testified that six of the bodies bore stab wounds and five bodies showed evidence of strangulation. In three cases the victims had been both stabbed and strangled.

The State also introduced testimony of two fingerprint experts that three fingerprints found at the scene of the crime were those of the defendant.

The State's evidence also showed that on July 12 the defendant went to the National Maritime Union Hall, which was located across the street from the townhouse, and received an assignment to report to a ship.  He rode to the ship with a man he had met at the hall but did not receive the assignment. He rode back to the union hall at which time he remarked that he intended to go to New Orleans to ship out. He then went to a service station several blocks from the hall where  he  left his luggage, stating that  he was going to look for  a room. The defendant did not return to the station that night but on the following morning he appeared and picked up his luggage.  He then went to the Shipyard Inn, which was a tavern and rooming house, where he registered under his real name and paid a week's rent in advance. On the evening of July 13, he was in the bar of the Shipyard Inn and one witness testified that the defendant had a knife in his possession and another witness testified that the defendant had a gun.  According to the witness the defendant left the Inn, which was about two miles from the townhouse, at about 10 P.M.

Further testimony showed that on July 14 the defendant was in the Shipyard Inn when he received a telephone call. He left, stating that he had found a job and was going to check out. The defendant took a cab to the north side of Chicago and got out in front of a housing project.  He did not go into the housing project but walked down the street and later in the afternoon registered at a hotel on the near north side under an assumed name. He spent one night at that hotel and then obtained a room in a hotel on the near west side of Chicago. 

On July 16, the police were notified that a man in the hotel had been injured. The injured man was the defendant who had a cut on his left arm and another cut on his right wrist.  He was taken to the hospital where the attending physician noticed a tattoo on the defendant's arm which matched the description given in police bulletins and the newspapers as the tattoo on the man wanted as the suspect in the killings. The doctor notified the police and defendant was placed under arrest. (News -  Arrest & Photo of Speck)

Two defense witnesses, who were employees of a tavern and restaurant near the Shipyard Inn, testified that the defendant was in the tavern on the night of the crimes early in the evening and that he left and returned at about midnight and stayed until at least 12:30 A.M. The defense also introduced testimony of members of the defendant's family concerning his early life, education, etc.    (Speck's life)   (Speck dies in prison)

The Charges: All eight indictments were consolidated for trial. Speck was convicted and assessed the death penalty on each. See People v. Speck, 242 N.E.2d 208 (Ill. 1968). Speck's death sentences were overturned by the United States Supreme Court in Speck v. Illinois, 403 U.S. 946 (1971), rev'd per curiam, under the rule of Witherspoon v. Illinois, 391 U.S. 510 (1968) that held the practice of excluding from jury service for cause veniremen who express reservations about the death penalty was unconstitutional. Speck spent 25 years in Stateville Correctional Center, a maximum security lockup in Joliet, Illinois, until he died at age 49, apparently of a heart attack.

Direct Examination of the Only Surviving Nurse: What follows is the complete direct examination of the prosecution's star witness with objections and extraneous colloquy between counsel and the court omitted. I've annotated the transcript with comments. In effect, the direct testimony of Corazon Amurao is the prosecution's case - it's the story of what happened that fateful night.

Analyze the direct examination of the prosecutor in the Speck case. Was it organized chronologically?  What was the examiner's goal?  What prosecution arguments could be made based on the testimony?  Did the questioner include all the evidence that he would need to make a persuasive argument? Were there evidentiary objections that might have been sustained if they had been made? Did the examiner use any techniques that emphasized the important evidence?  Did the direct examination cut off potential arguments by the opposition? Did the direct examination make it clear that the witness was in a position to observe that which she described? Did its structure make clear that she was able to recall what she saw?  Was the examination internally consistent? Did the questions establish the witness as honest and truthful?  Did the direct examiner personalize the witness?  Did the examiner make effective use of exhibits?  How did he respond to objections?

As you read this annotated transcript ask yourself the following questions about the prosecutor's direct examination of Miss Amurao:

●  Did counsel put the witness at ease?

●  Did counsel permit the witness to tell the story without excessive leading?

●  Did counsel place the jury's focus on the witness rather than on himself?

●  Did the questions of counsel allow the witness to paint as complete a picture of the event as                              possible?

●  Did counsel control the topic of the questioning?

●  Did counsel emphasize the most important testimony?

●  Did counsel prove his case on direct examination?

●  Did counsel's questions lead to a climax?

●  Look for the words:  "when," "where," "why," "who," "what," and "how" at the beginning of questions.

Annotated Transcript of Direct Examination of the
Prosecutions' Star Witness from State of Illinois v. Speck


THE PEOPLE OF THE                  STATE OF ILLINOIS
STATE OF ILLINOIS                           COUNTY OF PEORIA
                    
VS                                                Indictment Nos., 67 Y 20,
                                      67 Y 22, 67 Y 23,
RICHARD FRANKLIN SPECK                                 67 Y 24, 67 Y 25, 67 Y 26
                                                                                          and 67 Y 27.
                  
       IN THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE TENTH
JUDICIAL CIRCUIT OF ILLINOIS

Before Judge HERBERT C. PASCHEN
and a Jury.

Wednesday, April 5, 1967,
2:15 o'clock P. M.

Court convened pursuant to recess.

Present:

Hon. John J. Stamos,
State's Attorney of Cook County, by
Mr. William J. Martin,
Mr. John F. Glenville and
Mr. George J. Murtaugh,
Assistant State's Attorneys,
appeared for the People;

Mr. Gerald W. Getty,
Public Defender of Cook County, and
Mr. James J. Doherty and
Mr. James N. Gramenos,
Assistant Public Defenders,
appeared for the defendant.

(Thereupon, the following proceedings were
had in the presence and hearing of the jury:)

THE COURT:  Good morning, ladies and gentlemen of the jury.
THE JURORS:  Good morning.
THE COURT:  Do you want to move your table in some way?
MR. GETTY:  Maybe if this was back up a little bit (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  May we proceed, your Honor?
THE COURT:  You may proceed.
MR. MARTIN:  The People will call Miss Corazon Amurao.

CORAZON PIEZA AMURAO,
a witness called on behalf of the People of the State of Illinois, being first duly sworn, was examined and testified as follows:

DIRECT EXAMINATION
By Mr. Martin?

[Note how the direct examiner proceeds to introduce the witness to the jury with background information concerning             the witness.]
Q.Would you please state your name?
A.Corazon Pieza Amurao.
Q.Will you please spell your first, middle and last name?
A.C-o-r-a-z-o-n P-i-e-z-a A-m-u-r-a-o
Q.Miss Amurao, when were you born?
A.I was born in Durangao, San Luis Batangas, Philippines, on March 26, 1943.
Q.Where did you obtain your first schooling?
A.I attended my first grade in Santa Monica School, San Luis Batangas, Philippines.
Q.Did you take any courses in English, in the course of your grade school education?
A.I take up English during my first grade.
Q.And how long did you have English taught to you as a subject?
A.From first grade up to I have finished my nursing in college.
Q.What is your native language?
A.Tagalog.
Q.How do you spell that?
A.T-a-g-a-l-o-g.
Q.Is that the national language of the Philippines?
A.Yes, it is.
Q.How big was the town in which you were born and went to grammar school?
A.It was about -- The population there is only about 200 people.
Q.200 people?
A.Yes.
Q.After you finished high school, where did you next go to school?
A.I went to Far Eastern University, Manilla, Philippines.
Q.How long did you attend the Far Eastern University?
A.I attended that for four and a half years.
Q.And what course of study did you take during that time?
A.I took up nursing.
Q.Did you graduate from the Far Eastern University School of Nursing?
A.Yes, I did.
Q.When did you graduate?
A.I graduated April, 1964.
Q.After you graduated from Far Eastern University, in 1964, what did you do then?
A.I took the Board examination for nurses and I passed it and I know my grade in October, 1964.
Q.Did you become a registered nurse in the Philippines --
A.Yes.
Q.(Continuing) -- in October of 1964?
A.Yes.
Q.Now, after you graduated from Far Eastern University in April, what did you do right after that?
A.I work in San Sebastian General Hospital, in Lipa City, Philippines.
Q.Would you spell the name of the hospital and city?
A.S-a-n S-e-b-a-s-t-i-a-n G-e-n-e-r-a-l H-o-s-p-i-t-a-l, L-i-p-a C-i-t-y.
Q.How long did you work at the San Sebastian General Hospital in Lipa City?
A.I worked there for eight months.
Q.And what type of duty did you have during those eight months as a nurse?
A.I have been considered as a staff nurse.
[Here the direct examiner provides more introduction showing how the witness (a foreigner) came to be living in                    Chicago.]
Q.After you had finished your eight months at San Sebastian General Hospital, what did you do then?
A.Then I transferred working in Far Eastern University Hospital.
Q.Is that in Manila?
A.Yes, it is in Manila, Philippines.
Q.And when did you start to work at the Far Eastern University Hospital?
A.I started working last January, 1965.
Q.And what type of work did you do at that hospital?
A.I was also considered as a staff nurse.
Q.How long did you work at the Far Eastern University Hospital?
A.I worked there for 13 months.
[Here the direct examiner shows that the witness knew the other girls (victims)]
Q.Did you know a girl named Merlita Gargullo?
A.Yes, I know her.
Q.When did you first meet Merlita Gargullo, approximately?
A.Approximately one month before I left the Philippines.
Q.When did you leave the Philippines, Miss Amurao?
A.I left there last April 31, 1965, or `66, excuse me.
Q.When you left the Philippines, in April of 1966, was that the first time in your life that you had left the                                                      Philippine Islands?
A.Yes, that's my first time.
Q.Did you know Valentina Pasion?
A.Yes, I know her.
Q.And where did you first meet Miss Passion?
A.I met her in the Philippines one month before I left the Philippines.
Q.And what was the reason for your leaving the Philippines, in April of 1966?
A.To gain work here in Chicago.
Q.How did you learn of employment as a nurse in the City of Chicago?
A.I applied to an agent in the Philippines.
Q.And, through the agent in the Philippines, were you assigned to any particular hospital?
A.No, just to go here in Chicago.
Q.Were you later assigned to any particular hospital in Chicago?
A.Yes.  They assigned us to South Chicago Community Hospital.
Q.When were you assigned to the South Chicago Community Hospital?
[Note that the witness didn't understand the direct examiner's question so he smoothly rephrases it.]
A.Beg your pardon?
Q.At what time were you assigned to work at the South Chicago Community Hospital?
A.At 7:00 o'clock in the morning up to 3:30 o'clock in the afternoon.
Q.When you left the Philippines, did any other girls accompany you to the United States?
A.Yes, there were.
Q.And how did you travel from the Philippines to the United States?
A.Through an airplane.
Q.Where did you land in the United States?
A.We landed in O'Hare Airport.
Q.In Chicago?
A.Yes, Chicago.
Q.And do you recall the date that you landed in Chicago, Illinois?
A.It was May 1, 1966.
[Here the direct examiner leads and sums up the witness' purpose in coming to Chicago.]
Q.Now, were you going to be an exchange nurse at the South Chicago Community Hospital?
A.Yes, I was.
Q.And did you have a contract with the hospital?
A.Yes.  We have a contract for one year.  But if you want to stay for two years, you can stay there for two                                                  years.
[The direct examiner ties in the other foreign nurses who were victims with witness.]
Q.What girls came to Chicago with you on May 1, 1966?
A.They were Miss Gargullo, Miss Urbano, Miss Colobong, Miss Centeno and Miss Siberio.
Q.Were those other girls also exchange nurses to the South Chicago Community Hospital?
A.Yes, they were.
[Here the examiner establishes when the victim Pasion arrived.]
Q.When did Valentina Pasion arrive in Chicago?
A.She arrived during the second week of May.
Q.After you arrived at O'Hare Field in Chicago on May 1st, where did you go?
A.We went to 2319 East 100th Street, Chicago.
Q.Miss Amurao, I would ask you to look at People's Exhibit 13 for identification and I would ask you if this                                                model accurately and substantially reflects the building located at 2319 East 100th Street?
A.Yes, that is the same.
Q.You have looked at this before, is that correct?
A.Un-hum.
Q.How long after your arrival on May 1, 1966 was it before you commenced working at the hospital?
A.How long?
Q.Yes.
A.I have been there for one week before we work in the South Chicago Hospital.
Q.When you started working at the South Chicago Community Hospital, what hours did you have?
A.My time of working there?
Q.Yes.
A.From 7:00 o'clock in the morning up to 3:30 o'clock in the afternoon.
Q.And were those your regular hours of nursing duty?
A.Yes, sir.
Q.In May?
A.That's right.
[The  direct examiner helps his witness with dates by leading her.]
Q.And did you work as a nurse at the South Chicago Community Hospital from the second or third week in                                               May until July 14, 1966?
A.Yes.
Q.What different assignments did you have, during that time, within the hospital?
A.I was assigned to those patients who were going for surgery and who had been for surgery, and then I was                                             assigned to the medical patients.
[The direct examiner establishes that the witness knew the victim, Mary Ann Jordan]
Q.Did you know a girl named Mary Ann Jordan?
A.Yes, I know her.
Q.How did you meet Mary Ann Jordan?
A.I met her in our apartment.
Q.And what was her occupation?
A.She is a student nurse in the South Chicago Community Hospital.
Q.Did you ever have occasion to work on the same floor as Miss Mary Ann Jordan?
A.Yes, I have worked with her in the South Chicago Community Hospital.
Q.Did you know a girl named Judy Dytkon?
A.Yes, I know her.
Q.Was she also a nurse at the hospital?
A.Yes, she is a student nurse in the hospital.
Q.Do you know where Judy Dytkon lived?
A.She is living in the apartment next to us, in 2315.
Q.2315?
A.Yes.
[Using the demonstrative model as a powerful visual, the direct examiner now sets the stage as to who was living at the          townhouse and where.]
Q.Miss Amurao, directing your attention to the month of July, 1966, where did you reside, in the townhouse at                                           2319 East 100th Street?
A.I am residing in the east bedroom.
Q.And will you tell me what other girls were living at 2319 East 100th Street, in July of 1966?
A.Ms. Gargullo and I.
Q.Who were the other girls who lived there with you and Miss Gargullo throughout the townhouse?
A.In the south bedroom it was occupied by Miss Wilkening, by Miss Matusek, by Miss Davy and by Miss                                                 Pasion.  And, in the west bedroom, it was occupied by Miss Farris and by Nina Schmale.
MR. MARTIN:  Excuse me a moment.  May the record reflect, your Honor, that we are removing the east wall of the                                south bedroom of People's Exhibit 13 for identification, and that we are now removing the second floor of People's Exhibit 13 for               identification and placing it on a separate table?
Q.Miss Amurao, I would ask that you step down from the witness stand and examine the second floor of                                                    People's Exhibit 13 for identification.
(Thereupon, the witness stepped down from the witness stand.)
[The direct examiner locates each victim's bed in the east, west, and south bedrooms, giving the jurors a bird's eye                view.]
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  Would you please point out, starting with the front east bedroom, the bed which you occupied in July of 1966?
A.I was occupying this bed (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating the top bunk in the front east bedroom.
       May the record reflect that I will write, in a blue pen, the name of "Corazon Amurao" on the top of the bunk that she just indicated?          (Marking.)
[Notice the direct examiner's facility with the model.]
Q.Who occupied the bottom bunk in the front east bedroom?
A.It was occupied by Miss Gargullo (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  May the record reflect that I have written in blue ink, the name "Merlita Gargullo" on the bottom bunk indicated by              Miss Amurao?
Q.Directing your attention to the front west bedroom or northwest bedroom, would you please tell the Court and jury who                             occupied the two beds located in that bedroom on People's Exhibit 13?
A.This one, (indicating) was occupied by Miss Farris.
MR. MARTIN:  Let the record reflect that I have written the name "Suzanne Farris" on the bed pointed to me by Miss Amurao.
THE WITNESS:  A.  This bed near the wall was occupied by Miss Nina Schmale.
MR. MARTIN:  May the record reflect that I have placed the name "Nina Schmale" on the bed indicated by Miss Amurao?
Q.Miss Amurao, directing your attention to the south bedroom at 2319 East 100th Street, in People's Exhibit 13, would you                        please indicate what girls occupied each of the three bunk beds in that bedroom?
A.This bed was occupied by Miss Pasion (indicating).
[Notice how the direct examiner provides a verbal commentary for the jurors and the appellate record as to non-verbal          conduct of the witness.]
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating the bottom bunk of the bed along the south wall.
       May the record reflect that I have placed the name "Valentina Pasion" on the bottom bunk bed along the south wall indicated by the         witness?
Q.And would you please tell the Court and jury what girls occupied the other two bunk beds in the south bedroom?
A.This bed is occupied by Miss Davy (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  Let the record show that I have placed the name "Gloria Davy" on the top bunk in the south bedroom of People's              Exhibit 13 for identification nearest to the west wall.
Q.Would you please point out for the Court and jury who occupied the remaining bunk bed in the south bedroom?
A.This is occupied by Miss Matusek, the upper bunk (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  And may the record reflect that I have placed, in blue ink, the name "Patricia Matusek" on the top bunk of the bed             facing the east wall.
THE WITNESS:  A.  And this, the lower bunk, was occupied by Miss Wilkening (indicating).
MR MARTIN:  May the record reflect that I have written, in blue ink, the name "Pamela Wilkening" on the bottom bunk of the same          bed occupied by Patricia Matusek facing the east wall.
    Would you please resume the stand, Miss Amurao?
(Thereupon, the witness resumed the witness stand).
[The direct examiner now turns to the afternoon in question and traces her activity as she returned to the townhouse             from work.]
       MR. MARTIN:  Q.  Miss Amurao, directing your attention to Wednesday, July 13, 1966, did you work at the South Chicago                     Community Hospital on that date?
A.Yes, I did.
Q.And what hours did you work on July 13th?
A.I worked from 7:00 o'clock in the morning up till 3:30 o'clock in the afternoon.
Q.When you finished work at 3:30 p.m., where did you go?
A.Then we went home to 2319 East 100th Street.
Q.And how did you get to the townhouse on that day?
A.Through the hospital vehicle.
Q.And were you normally provided with a ride to and from the townhouse to the hospital?
A.Yes.
Q.And that was by the hospital Jeep?
A.Yes.
Q.Do you recall who was with you, when you arrived at the townhouse on Wednesday afternoon?
A.Miss Gargullo was with me and together with the American girls.  Together with the American girls.
Q.Were these the American student nurses who also lived at 2319?
A.Yes, they are.
Q.Do you recall who they were?
A.I can't recall who they were.
Q.Approximately what time was it when you arrived at the townhouse Wednesday afternoon?
A.Approximately, it was about 4:30, about 4:00 o'clock in the afternoon.
Q.Did you enter through the front or the rear of the townhouse at that time?
A.We went in through the rear bedroom, through the rear door.
Q.Who did you see, when you arrived at approximately 4:00 p.m., Wednesday afternoon?
A.I saw Miss Pasion in the kitchen.
Q.Had she worked on that date, July 13th?
A.No, she did not work.
Q.Was that her day off?
A.Yes.
Q.What did you do, after you arrived at the townhouse?
A.Then we ate our supper, together with Miss Gargullo and Miss Pasion, in the kitchen.
Q.You ate in the kitchen of the townhouse located at the rear, indicating the south of the building.  Did you eat at the kitchen                       table?
A.Yes, we eat at the kitchen table.
[The direct examiner establishes when the witness finished eating, setting the stage for the dramatic events that were             to follow.]
Q.What time did you and Miss Gargullo and Miss Pasion finish eating your dinner Wednesday afternoon?
A.About 4:30 in the afternoon.
Q.After you had eaten dinner, what did you do?
A.Then we went upstairs to our bedroom.
Q.Did all three of you go upstairs to the second floor?
A.Yes, Miss Pasion entered her room and Miss Gargullo and I entered our bedroom.
[The direct examiner establishes that the witness took a nap til 6:00 p.m.]
Q.And what did you do at that time, approximately 4:30 p.m., Wednesday afternoon?
A.I went up to my bed and I take a nap.
Q.Did you see what Miss Gargullo did?
A.Miss Gargullo lay down on her bed and take a nap.
Q.And did Miss Pasion do the same thing?
A.She just entered her room, I don't know whether she take a nap or not.
Q.What did you get up from your nap on Wednesday afternoon?
A.I got up around 6:00 o'clock in the afternoon.
Q.When you got up at about 6:00 p.m. Wednesday night, was there anybody in your bedroom?
A.No, Miss Gargullo was not there any more.
[The Direct examiner shows that she then got her dried clean clothes from basement.]
Q.Where did you go when you got up at 6:00 p.m.?
A.I went downstairs to the basement.
Q.What did you do there?
A.I took my dry clothes which was hung on the line in the basement.
Q.And when had you hung your clothes up to dry in the basement?
A.The other day before Wednesday, Tuesday.
Q.How long were you in the basement at that time to pick up your dry clothes?
A.I have been there for about two, three minutes.
Q.And after you got your clothes from the basement, where did you go then?
A.Then I went back upstairs to my room when I got my dry clothes.
[The direct examiner places the other girls.]
Q.When you went downstairs to get your dry clothes, did you see anybody in the townhouse?
A.Yes, I saw Miss Gargullo and Miss Pasion in the living room.
Q.And this was a little after 6:00 p.m.?
A.Yes.
Q.And did you see what Miss Gargullo was doing?
A.Miss Gargullo was writing a letter at the desk and Miss Pasion was lying on the couch.
Q.And what was she doing?
A.She was watching TV.
[The direct examiner shows that the witness then washes dirty clothes.]
Q.After you returned to the second floor with your dry clothes, what did you do then?
A.Then I took my dirty clothes and I washed them in the bathroom upstairs.
Q.Would this be the bathroom indicated on the second floor of People's Exhibit Number 13?
A.Yes.
Q.And what type of clothes did you have?
A.My uniforms and some of my street clothes.
Q.And where did you wash them in the bathroom on the second floor?
A.I washed them in the sink.
Q.How long did you spend washing your dirty nurse's uniforms and clothes in the sink and in the second floor                     washroom?
A.It took me about two hours washing them.
Q.Now, during that two hours did you at any time leave that washroom on the second floor?
A.No, I just stayed there in the washroom.
Q.And was the door to the washroom open or closed during those hours?
A.It was closed.
Q.And now, when you finished washing your clothes, what did you do then.
A.Then I went back downstairs to the basement and I hung them.
[The direct examiner establishes that at 8:00 p.m. the witness hangs the clothes in the basement.]
Q.Approximately what time was it when you took your wet, clean clothes down to the basement?
A.Approximately 8:00 o'clock.
Q.How long did it take you to hang them up?
A.It took me five minutes hanging it.
Q.And after you finished hanging up your wet clothes in the basement, where did you go?
A.I went back upstairs to my room, and I got my paper and pen and then I went down and joined Miss Gargullo.
Q.Now, when you went downstairs a little after 8:00 o'clock to hang up your clothes, did you see anybody in the townhouse at                    that time?
A.I just saw Miss Gargullo in the living room.
Q.Did you see Miss Pasion?
A.I did not see her.
Q.Approximately what time was it that you went downstairs to join Miss Gargullo in the living room?
A.Approximately it was about 8:00 o'clock.
[The story moves on in chronological order with proof that the witness then wrote letters.]
Q.And what did you do when you arrived on the first floor of the townhouse?
A.Then I sat down at the desk near the table and I wrote some letters.
Q.Would you please, again, step down from the witness stand and examine the first floor of the People's Exhibit 13 for                               identification.
(At this time the witness stepped down from the witness stand.)
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  Would you tell the court and jury where you were seated and where Miss Gargullo was seated?
A.Miss Gargullo was sitting down here (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  May the record reflect that I am placing the name of Merlita Gargullo on the desk nearest the south end of the                  People's Exhibit 13 for identification.
Q.Now, was she seated in the chair immediately next to the desk at the south end of the first floor?  Miss Gargullo?
A.Yes, Miss Gargullo was sitting down and I sat down there (indicating).
Q.You were sitting at the middle desk?
A.Yes, at the middle desk.
MR. MARTIN: May the record reflect that I have written the name Corazon Amurao on the middle desk indicated by                                the witness on the first floor of the People's Exhibit 13.
Q.Were you seated on the chair?
A.Yes.
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating the chair next to the middle desk.
   You may resume the witness stand.
(At this time the witness resumed the witness stand).
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  How long did you stay in the first floor living room of the townhouse writing letters on Wednesday night?
A.I stayed there for almost two hours.
Q.Now, during that time did you see anyone come into the townhouse?
A.Yes, Miss Jordan and Miss Farris came in.
Q.And where were Miss Jordan and Miss Farris when you first saw them in the townhouse?
A.They were in the living room?
Q.And approximately where in the living room were they?
A.They were near that table next to me.
Q.Were they standing behind you at the center of the living room?
A.In front of me.
Q.Toward the front, north desk?
A.Yes, front, north desk.
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating a position near the front, north desk of People's Exhibit 13 for identification.
[The direct examiner shows that at 10:00 p.m. the witness sees Ms. Jordan & Farris.]
Q.Approximately what time was it that you saw Miss Jordan and Miss Farris Wednesday night?
A.Approximately, it was about 10:00 o'clock.
Q.How were they dressed at that time?
A.They were dressed in bermuda shorts.
Q.Did you have any conversation with them while they were there?
A.No.
Q.How long did Miss Jordan and Miss Farris stay in the townhouse?
A.They just stayed there for about five minutes.
Q.And where did you see them go?
A.Then they went out and they passed through the back door.
Q.They left through the rear of the building?
A.Yes.
Q.You stated that you went upstairs at approximately what time?
A.Will you repeat the question?
Q.Surely.  What time was it when you left the living room on the first floor and went upstairs.
A.After writing the letters?
[The direct examiner shows that she went to her room 10:30 p.m.]
Q.Yes.
A.Approximately, it was about 10:30.
[The direct examiner shows that the witness locked front door.]
Q.Before you left the first floor living room at approximately 10:30, what did you do?
A.I locked the front door.
Q.Where was Miss Gargullo at that time?
A.Miss Gargullo was already upstairs.
Q.At approximately what time did Miss Gargullo leave the first floor living room to go upstairs?
A.She was about five minutes ahead of me.
Q.Did you go to the rear door of the townhouse before you went upstairs?
A.No, I just locked the front door and I did not check the back, the rear door, its lock or nothing.
[The direct examiner places the other girls.]
Q.When you walked upstairs to the second floor at approximately 10:30 p.m., did you look into the south bedroom?
A.Yes, I saw that the hallway light is on so I glanced at the big bedroom door and I noticed that Miss Pasion was lying on the                      bed.  Miss Matusek and Miss Wilkening was lying on their respective beds.
Q.Did you observe whether or not the ceiling light was on or off in the south or big bedroom when you saw the three girls.
A.The light was off in the south bedroom.
Q.Did they say anything to you when you came upstairs.
A.No.
Q.Did you look at the room occupied by Miss Schmale and Miss Farris?
A.I noticed that the door was slightly open.
Q.Could you see in the room?
A.No, I did not glance in the room.
Q.Had you seen Miss Schmale that evening?
A.I hadn't seen her.
Q.Had you seen Miss Davy that evening?  Up to that time.
A.No.
Q.Where did you go after you arrived on the second floor?
A.I went to my bedroom.
Q.What did you see when you arrived at your bedroom?
A.I saw Miss Pasion lying on her bed.
Q.In your bedroom?
A.Yes.
Q.And that would be the bottom bunk?
A.Yes.
Q.And who was it that was there on your bottom bunk?  Which girl?
A.Miss Gargullo.
Q.What was Miss Gargullo doing?
A.She was just lying down.
Q.How was she dressed at that time?
A.She was dressed in a short nightgown.
Q.Do you remember what color it was?
A.Light yellow.
Q.What did you do after you arrived in your bedroom at that time?
[The direct examiner now moves to proving the bedtimes prayers of Gargullo]
A.I lock our bedroom door and then I'm about to put off light but Miss Gargullo told me not to because she told me she is                           going to say her prayers first.
Q.What light was on in your bedroom at that time?
A.The light on the ceiling.
Q.Was that the only light in the room?
A.Yes, that's the only light in our bedroom.
Q.What kind of light was it?
A.It's a bright light.
[The direct examiner proves that the witness went to sleep.]
Q.What did you do after Miss Gargullo asked you not to turn off the light off?
A.Then I went up to my bed and I sleep.
Q.Did you wake up at any time later, Wednesday night, July 13th?
A.Yes.
[The direct examiner has the witness discuss the arrival of Speck.]
Q.And would you tell the court and jury how you happened to wake up?
A.I heard a knock in our bedroom.  It was about four knocks and the knocking was done in a normal manner.
Q.When you woke up, was the ceiling light on or off?
A.It was still on.
[The direct examiner proves the time of Speck's arrival.]
Q.Do you know approximately what time it was when you heard the four knocks at your bedroom door?
A.It's about 11:00 o'clock.
Q.How did you observe that that was the time?
A.There's a clock right there on our dresser in our bedroom.
Q.Did you look at it?
A.I looked at it.
Q.What did you do after you heard the four knocks at the door?
A.Then I got up and I answered the one who is knocking on our door.
Q.And will you describe what happened when you went to the door?
A.I went up to the -- I went to the door and I unlocked it and I started to open it and at once there's somebody who is pushing                     the door.
Q.What happened next?
A.Well, then I saw a man.
Q.MR. GETTY:Maybe the witness would want a few minutes to compose herself.
THE COURT:  Do you want a moment's recess?  Do you want some water?
THE WITNESS:  (Nodding)
[The direct examiner now moves the story toward the dramatic blood-letting as he proves that a man with a gun                    (Speck) forces himself into the room.]
MR. MARTIN:  Miss Amurao, will you tell us what you saw when your door opened at that time?
A.Then I saw a man standing near, on the center of the door holding a gun in his right hand.
Q.Did you look at the man?
MR. GETTY:  Objection to leading.  Let the witness tell her story.  [Is this objection a good idea?]
THE COURT:  Tell what happened.
MR. MARTIN:  I'm sorry, your Honor, I didn't hear the ruling.
THE COURT:  Let her tell the story.  You saw a man and tell us what you saw and what happened.
[By ruling that the witness may tell her story, the court aids the prosecution; the story becomes what the witness saw                and what happened.]
THE WITNESS:  A.  I saw a man standing on the center of our door with a gun in his right hand pointed toward me and I noticed                         that he had marks on his face, the clothes was dark from the shoulder to the foot and his hair was blond, hair combed                            toward the back, and some hair in the front.
Q. Where was this man when you were looking at him?
A. He was standing in our door, in the center of our door.
Q.Was he in the light from your room or out of the light from your room?  [This was not leading.]
A. He was in the light from our room.
MR. GETTY:  I object to leading.  I don't mind the witnesses telling the story.
THE COURT:  Objection overruled.
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  He was in the light?
A.        Yes.
Q.        How long did you look at this man?
MR. GETTY:  Objection to leading. [This was not leading but the defender again makes an objection.]
MR. MARTIN:  That's not a leading question.
THE COURT:  She may answer.  That's not a leading question.
       [Notice how the court echoes the prosecutor. Does this bolster the prosecutor in the eyes of the jury?]
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  How long did you look at the man?
A.I stared at him for about one to two minutes.
Q.Did he say anything or did you say anything?
A.He asked me, where are your companions and then he grabbed my forearm.
Q.Now, Miss Amurao, if you see that same man in the courtroom today, who came to your bedroom door on                               Wednesday night, July 13th, would you please step down and point him out, please.
(At this time the witness stepped down from the witness stand.)
[Note the dramatic effect of having the petite victim step down, move to Speck, the man who had calmly and coldly                murdered her eight friends  and  and point him out.  We all know who this diminutive lady is going to point to but the            courtroom affect is riveting.]
THE WITNESS:  This is the man (indicating). 
      [Notice how dramatically the prosecutor staged the identification of the defendant.]
MR. MARTIN:  Identifying for the record the defendant, Richard Franklin Speck.
       [The direct examiner states the identification for the record.]
THE COURT:  You will not all get up and disturb these proceedings.
(At this time the witness resumed the witness stand).
MR. GETTY:  Your Honor, I want to be heard on the side here.
(Thereupon, the following proceedings were had outside the hearing of the jury:)
[The defense objects unsuccessfully to the in-court identification saying it was too dramatic.]
MR. GETTY:  I want the record to reflect that when she dramatically left the witness stand and walked and pointed at this defendant         out, and said, "This is the man," that there was a commotion in the rear of the courtroom and many people left, I do not know how           many left the courtroom and those people are from the press.
MR. MARTIN:  I object to the description given by the defense counsel.
MR. GETTY:  Well, you describe it.
MR. MARTIN:  We will ask the court to describe it.
THE COURT:  She walked over here, she was asked to step out and point out a man.  She walked over to him pointed to him and            said, "This is the man."  The press did then start to leave and the court cautioned them about leaving noisily.
MR. DOHERTY:  But they did leave noisily.
THE COURT:  They did leave.
MR. DOHERTY:  About 20 of them.
MR. MARTIN:  I object to "20."
THE COURT:  I wouldn't say 20, I would say 10 to 12.  Because it only holds about 30 back there and there are more than 20 left.
MR. DOHERTY:  May I say something here?
THE COURT:  Yes.
MR. DOHERTY:  This is as a result of an unusual procedure of, instead of asking someone to point from the witness stand -- and             there has been numerous witnesses here -- this is the only one that they went through this ostentatious display for the sole                    purpose of prejudicing the jury, to which we object. [The drama of the I.D. hurts the defense, and the defense shows it but              not in front of the jury.]
THE COURT:  Well, it is difficult for her to see where she is there.
MR. GETTY:  Of course, on account of this, I move for a mistrial.
THE COURT:  Mistrial denied.
(Thereupon the following proceedings were had within the hearing and presence of the jury).
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  Miss Amurao, except for his clothing, does the man that you pointed out in the courtroom today look any                               different than he did when you first saw him on Wednesday night, July 13th?
A.He is just the same.
[The direct examiner establishes what happened when Speck arrived in her bedroom.]
Q.After he grabbed you by the arm what did you do?
A.Then I went to the rear bedroom.
Q.What happened when you went to the rear or south bedroom?
A.I rushed to the rear bedroom going to the small closet.
Q.Did you see whether or not there was anyone behind you when you rushed to the small closet in the south bedroom?
A.Miss Gargullo and Miss Pasion was behind me.
Q.Were the lights on or off when you first rushed into the south bedroom?
A.When I entered the south bedroom the light was off, but when I am about then to enter the closet the light was already on.
Q.And would you point, please, to which closet you were referring to in the south bedroom?
A.This closet.
Q.You are referring to the closet along the west wall, People's Exhibit 13 for identification.
  You may resume.  What did you do after you got into the small closet in the south bedroom?
A.We closed the small closet door and we all held it closed and we were frightened inside the closet.
Q.Who was holding the door closed?
A.Three of us, Miss Gargullo, Miss Pasion and I.
Q.While the three of you were holding the door closed in the small closet did you hear anything from outside?
A.Then we heard somebody knocking on the closet door.
Q.Did you hear anything else after the knocking?
A.Then she told us to come out of the closet and he is not going to harm you.
Q.Did you recognize the voice of the person who said that statement?
A.Objection to leading.
Q.Well, that is not leading.  She may answer.
THE WITNESS:  A.  I did not recognize the voice but it is a female voice.
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  What did you do then?
A.Then we opened the closet door.
Q.How long had you and Miss Gargullo and Miss Pasion stayed in the small closet holding the door shut?
A.We had been there for five minutes.
Q.Who was the first one to leave the small closet, if you did?
A.All three of us leave the small closet?
Q.When you came out of the small closet was the light in the south bedroom on or off?
MR. GETTY:  Objection to leading.
THE COURT:  No, that is not leading.
MR. GETTY:  Well, she can tell and describe the condition of the room at the time she came out.
THE COURT:  She may answer the question.
   You may answer.
THE WITNESS:  A.  The light is off already when we come out from the closet.
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  Will you describe what you saw after you and Miss Pasion and Miss Gargullo came out of the                                              closet?
A.I saw standing near the closet door Miss Matusek and Miss Schmale.
Q.Is that the first time that you had seen Miss Schmale that night?
A.Yes, this my first time I saw her.
Q.How was Miss Schmale dressed?
A.She was dressed in a sheer.
Q.Did you see anything else after you came out of the closet?
A.When I came out of the closet I saw Speck holding Wilkening in her waist line and the gun was holding -- I saw Speck                            standing near the closet holding Wilkening with his left hand and the right hand was still holding the gun. 
       [Notice that the witness refers to the defendant by his last name, as she will hence-forth. This label has no doubt been            discussed with her in witness preparation by the direct examiner.]
Q.Where was the gun pointed?
A.It was pointed towards us.
Q.What did it look like?
A.It is -- the color is black and it's a small one.
Q.Now, when you stated that you saw Speck standing near the closet holding Miss Wilkening around the waist with the gun,                     which closet are you referring to? 
       [Notice that the direct examiner now uses the same label "Speck"  as the witness when referring to the defendant.]
A.The sliding closet.
Q.Indicating the removable piece of the second floor on People's Exhibit 13, which I have placed in the model.
   And where was he standing in relation to the sliding closet doors?
A.Can I point it?
Q.Yes.
A.He was standing on this side.
MR. MARTIN:  Let the record show I am removing the sliding closet.
And would you please place a small "X" approximately where you saw Richard Speck?  And where was Miss Wilkening?
THE WITNESS:  In front of Speck.
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  And where was his left arm?
A.Around Wilkening waist line.
Q.Thank you.  Are there any drapes along the windows in the south bedroom?
A.Yes, there is.
Q.And at the time, Miss Amurao, what was the position of those drapes?
A.There is a part of a drape, it was hung up on the dresser.
Q.Were the rest of the drapes open or closed?
A.The rest were closed.
Q.And which part of the drape was hung over the dresser?
A.It is near the sliding closet, the drapes near the sliding closet.
Q.Indicating on the east end of the south bedroom?
A.Yes.
Q.And how was it draped, or what was it draped over?
A.It is hung on -- over the mirror.
Q.Over the mirror of the dresser against the south windows in the south bedroom, is that correct?
A.Yes.
[Note how the direct examiner occasionally uses the phrase "What happened next?" to keep the information flowing.]
Q.After you had come out of the small closet and you observed Speck holding Miss Wilkening around the waist and pointing                       the gun toward you, what happened next?
A.Then we went, we walked over to Speck and then Speck released Miss Wilkening.
Q.After he released Miss Wilkening what happened next.
A.Then Speck told us to sit down here, motioning the dresser near the window, in front of the dresser near the window.
Q.What did he motion to you with?
A.He motioned with a gun.
Q.Now what girls were in the south bedroom at that time when he motioned you to sit down?
A.Please repeat your question.
Q.Who were the girls in the south bedroom at that time when Speck motioned with the gun for you to sit down?
A.There were Miss Wilkening, Miss Schmale, Miss Matusek, Miss Pasion, Miss Gargullo, and myself.
Q.What did you do when Speck motioned for you to sit down?
A.Then we all sat down, all collectively.
[The direct examiner has the witness demonstrate how she got on floor.]
Q.In what type of position did you sit?  And perhaps you could again step down from the witness stand and demonstrate how                     you sat on the floor.  Perhaps do it here, Miss Amurao, in the center.
A.We sat down like this.
Q.And did the other five girls sit in the same position?
A.Yes, we all sit down like this position.
Q.You may resume the stand.  Indicating for the record a seated position with knees together elevated off the floor with the feet                    on the ground.
      [Note how the direct examiner describes what the witness did; his statement is  both for the appellate record and to                emphasize for the jury.] Where did each of the six girls sit at that time?
A.First of all was Miss Wilkening, who was sitting down near the sliding closet, then Nina Schmale, then Miss Pasion, then                       Miss Matusek, then myself, and then Miss Gargullo.
[Think about how much preparation went into this precise direct examination.  It is overflowing with factually                         descriptive testimony.  Notice how it paints a picture of what happened.  This looks simple but it is rarely done with                such dramatic force and clarity as Martin did here.]
MR. DOHERTY:  Just a moment.
MR. GETTY;  Your Honor, I have a motion.
THE COURT:  Very well.
[Jury out]
(Thereupon the following proceedings were had not within the presence and hearing of the jury:)
MR. GETTY:  My objection is I anticipate that the State is about to bring out replicas of each girl that was killed, made out of wood           or something.
MR. MARTIN:  If I could interrupt Mr. Getty, to clarify the record on this, I will explain what I intend to do.  This has not been before           the jury and I think that Mr. Getty may make his objection in this and the court may rule upon it.  What we propose to do at this              point and through the testimony of Miss Amurao is to exhibit to her, which the court can observe, a series of wooden blocks, which          are gray and shaped in the figure of a female in a seated position, with the knees up.  And there is a nameplate which appears on            each of these blocks which is the nameplate of each of the persons who will be described in her subsequent testimony. And I also           would point out we have small balsam blocks, which are simply square pieces of blocks, with nameplates on them, which will be             used to describe by the witness, Miss Amurao, the prone positions of the girls at a specific point in her testimony, when the girls             assumed prone positions in an attempt to hide.I think as such there should be a photograph of this material to be made part of the           record.
       [THE MODELS - Note how the prosecutor describes his demonstrative evidence.  Gray wooden blocks of seated women          with knees up, with nameplates and prone blocks representing the women and what he plans to do with it.  Also, he              asks to have it photographed for the appellate record. After rigorous argument by the public defender against the use            of the visuals, the trial judge overruled the defense objection and allowed the prosecution to use the models.]

CORAZON AMURAO,
        having been previously called as a witness, having been previously sworn, resumed the stand and testified further as follows:
DIRECT EXAMINATION (Continued)
[After the lengthy interruption to argue the admissibility of the models, the direct examiner goes right back to the meat          of the case - What the witness saw and did.]
By Mr. Martin:
Q.You are the same Miss Amurao who was testifying under oath earlier today, is that correct?
A.Yes.
Q.Now, Miss Amurao, I believe at the time of our recess you had testified that the defendant Speck had the six girls in the                          south bedroom to sit on the floor?
A.Yes.
[The direct examiner begins to use demonstrative evidence  - the wooden blocks - as a visual aid to show-and-tell the            jury what happened.]
Q.Miss Amurao, I would ask you to step down from the witness stand and I will give to you some small wooden blocks bearing                    the names of Matusek, Wilkening, Schmale, and I would ask you to place these wooden blocks in the position in the south                     bedroom where these girls sat when the defendant Speck ordered you to do so on Wednesday, July 13th.
(At this time the witness stepped down from the witness stand.)
[The direct examiner uses the who, what, when, where, why and how questions to have his witness tell the story.                   Underline them in colored pen here on this transcript, and you will see how important they are to a great direct                      examination.]
THE WITNESS:  A.  (Who/Where) Miss Wilkening was sitting down on the side, near this linen closet.  Nina Schmale was sitting                        down next to Miss Wilkening.  Miss Matusek was sitting down near Miss Pasion. Miss Pasion was sitting down between                       Nina Schmale and Matusek.  I sat down there on this side, near the bed.
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating the bed alongside the south wall previously identified as the bed of Miss Pasion.
THE WITNESS:  A.  Miss Gargullo sat down next to me.
MR. MARTIN:  Let the record show that the witness has placed the six wooden models in the positions indicated  by her testimony.        You may sit down.
(At this time the witness resumed the witness stand.)
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  After the five other girls and you had taken those positions, sitting on the floor, where was the defendant?
A.The defendant Speck was standing near Matusek's bed.
Q.(What) Did either he say anything at that time or did any of the girls?
A.One of the girls asked Speck, "What do you want?"  And then Speck answered, "I want money, I'm going to New Orleans."
Q.What happened after Speck made that statement to the girls?
A.Then Speck sat down in front of us.
Q.(How) In what position did he sit?
A.He was sitting down with his legs stretched, by this linen closet.
MR. MARTIN:  Would you please, again, step down from the witness stand and indicate with this plain wooden block the position                       which the defendant Richard Speck sat on the floor, in front of the girls.
(At this time the witness stepped down from the witness stand.)
THE WITNESS:  A.  He was sitting down on this side (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  Which way were his feet?
A.His feet was to the side here (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating the wooden block placed facing to the east, with the feet pointing toward the east.
(At this time the witness resumed the witness stand.)
MR. MARTIN: Q:  What happened after the defendant, Richard Speck, sat in that position in front of you and the other five girls.
A.Then one of the girls asked him, "How did you come in?"  And Speck answered, "Through the door."  And then one of the                       girls also asked him, Wilkening told him, "We are going to give you some money," but Speck did not hear Wilkening.  He                       did not say anything but as if he did not want Wilkening to stand up.
Q.Did you see anything in Speck's hands at the time?
A.Speck was holding a gun in his right hand.
Q.And where was the gun pointed?
A.It was pointed toward us, pointed to the one, whoever made a move.
Q.Now, after Miss Wilkening asked me if she could get some money, what happened after that?
A.Then they have some more conversation, but I can't understand what their conversation was.
Q.Who was talking at that time?
A.Speck and the American girls were talking.
Q.What is the next thing that you heard Speck say or the girls say?
A.Then I -- one of the girls asked, said to Speck, "We are going to give you some money."  Then Speck asked every one of                         us, he said, "How much do you have?"
Q.And who answered Speck when he asked each one how much money they had?
A.Will you please repeat that?
Q.Did any of the girls answer Speck when he asked, "How much money do you have?"
A.Yes.  Some answered, "I have $5.00."  Some answered, "I have six."  Some answered, "I have fifteen."  And then I                                  answered, " I have $10.00."
Q.What happened after the girls stated to Speck how much money they had?
A.Then Miss Matusek said, "Can I stand up to get my purse?"  Then Speck asked, "Where is you purse?" And then Matusek                     answered, "It is on my bed," pointing to the upper bunk.
Q.And after Matusek pointed to her bed, the upper bunk, what did she do or what did Speck do?
A.Then Matusek, Miss Matusek stand up and she went to her bed and she got her purse and she got her money.
Q.Where was Speck at the time Patricia Matusek got up and went to get her purse from her bed?
A.Speck was still sitting down near the bed, near the foot of the bed.
Q.In the same position you have indicated with the wooden block?
A.He was sitting down.  At first the legs were stretched but now he was sitting down when Miss Matusek was standing up.
Q.Was he facing the east wall?
A.Yes, facing the east wall.
Q.Where was the gun at the time Miss Matusek stood up to get her purse?
A.The gun was pointed toward Miss Matusek and Speck was looking at Miss Matusek.
Q.What did Miss Matusek do after she got her money from her purse?
A.Miss Matusek handed the money to Speck.
Q.Was he still sitting on the floor at that time?
A.Will you please repeat your question?
Q.Was he still sitting down on the floor in the same position he had previously been in before?
A.Miss Matusek was still standing up when she gave the money to Speck.  They she went back to her former position.
Q.She sat down where she had been?
A.Yes.
Q.Was Speck standing or sitting when he took the money from Miss Matusek?
A.Speck was sitting down.
Q.And did you see in what hand he took the money?
A.He took the money with the left hand.
Q.Did you see what he did with the money?
A.He put it in his pocket.
Q.And after Miss Matusek went back to her original position, sitting on the floor, what happened then?
A.Then Miss Wilkening said, "Can I stand up to get my purse?"  The Speck said, "Where is your purse?" Then Wilkening                          answered, "It is on my bed," pointing to the lower bunk.
Q.Where was the gun at this time?
A.The gun was pointing toward Miss Wilkening.
Q.What happened next?
A.Then Miss Wilkening stood up and she went to her bed and she got her purse.  I did not see precisely where she got her                        purse but she just -- I saw her just giving the money to Speck.
Q.And how did she hand the money to Speck?
A.Miss Wilkening was still standing up when she handed the money to Speck.
Q.Was he sitting down?
A.She was standing up and after she gave him the money, then Miss Wilkening sat down in the same position.
Q.Did you see what Speck did with the money that Miss Wilkening gave him?
A.Speck put it in his pocket.
Q.And was he still sitting on the floor where he had been?
A.Yes. He was still sitting on the floor.
Q.What happened after Miss Wilkening had given her money to Speck?
A.Then Miss Wilkening sat down.
Q.And then after she sat down, what happened then?
A.Then Miss Pasion said, "Can I stand up to get my purse?"  And then Speck answered, "Where's your purse?"  Then Miss                      Pasion answered, "It is in my bed."  Then Miss Pasion stand up and she get some money there.
Q.After Miss Pasion got her money from her purse, what did she do with her money?
A.Miss Pasion handed the money to Speck, when Miss Pasion was still standing up.
Q.What did he do with the money?
A.Speck put the money in his pocket.
Q.And where was the gun at that time?
A.The gun was in his right hand, pointing to Miss Pasion.
Q.What did Miss Pasion do after she had handed the money to Speck?
A.She sat down in the same position?
Q.What happened then?
A.Then Nina Schmale said, "Can I stand up and get my purse?"  Then Speck asked, "Where is your purse?"  Then Nina                            Schmale answered, "It is on my bed, "pointing toward the door.
Q.And after Miss Schmale pointed to the door -- and will you indicate which door you mean?  You mean the entrance door?
A.The entrance door to the bedroom.
Q.Indicating the south bedroom door?
A.Yes.
Q.After Miss Schmale pointed to that door, what happened next?
A.Then Speck stand up and he went to the door, which was slightly open and then he tried to look downstairs, and then he                         went back near to us and he told us all to stand up.
Q.And what did you do when Speck said to stand up?
A.Then we all stand up and we went to Nina Schmale's room.
Q.Where was the gun at the time Speck told you to stand up?
A.The gun was in his right hand, pointing toward us.
Q.In what order did the girls leave the south bedroom to go to Miss Schmale's bedroom?
A.We are in single file.
Q.Where was Speck at the time you and the other five girls walked in single file out of the south bedroom?
A.He was behind us.
Q.What happened next?
A.Then we all went to Nina Schmale's bedroom, and Nina Schmale gave the money to Speck and Speck was standing in the                     doorway of Nina Schmale's bedroom.
Q.Where was the gun at the time?
A.The gun was pointed toward the bedroom.
Q.When you walked from the south bedroom to Miss Schmale's bedroom, did you notice whether there were any lights on in                      the house?
A.I noticed that the bathroom light was on?
Q.Were there any lights on in Miss Schmale's room when she went in to get her money?
A.The lights in Miss Schmale's bedroom was off.
Q.What did Speck do with the money that Miss Schmale gave him?
A.He put it in his pocket.
Q.What happened after he put the money in his pocket?
A.Then we all went back to the south bedroom in single file.
Q.Where was Speck at the time that you and the other five girls walked in single file to the south bedroom?
A.When we went out of Nina Schmale's bedroom, Speck was standing near my bedroom door, the hallway, near my bedroom                     door.
Q.Did he follow you into the south bedroom?
A.Yes, he did.
Q.When you returned to the south bedroom with the other five girls, what happened then?
A.Then we all sat down in the same procedure we have before.
Q.What did Speck do at that time?
A.Then Speck counted at us, by pointing the gun, and he said, "One, two, three, four, five, six."
Q.After Speck had counted you and the other five girls, what did he do?
A.Then, after we were sitting down, after he had counted us, we heard a female voice downstairs.
Q.Where was Speck at the time you heard a girl's voice downstairs?
A.Speck was still standing near Matusek's bed.
Q.And were the girls seated in the same position you have indicated as your original position?
A.Yes.
Q.What did Speck do, after you heard the girl's voice downstairs?
A.Then Speck went back and forth from the door up to the dresser on tiptoe.
Q.Would you indicate, by stepping down from the witness stand, the area in which he walked at that time?
(Thereupon, the witness stepped down from the witness stand.)
THE WITNESS:  A.  This door was slightly open like this (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating the entrance door to the south bedroom.
THE WITNESS:  A.  And then he walked from here (indicating) up to here (indicating), and then he walked back there (indicating)                        and here and here (indicating), and then he went there (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  He walked back and forth twice?
A.Twice.
MR. MARTIN:  You may resume.  [Notice how the prosecutor directs his witness about the courtroom.  He is in control but          not overdirecting or overacting.]
Q.After Speck had walked from the entrance door toward the south windows and back twice, what did he do then?
A.Then Miss Davy came in.
Q.Where was Miss Davy, the first time you saw her?
A.I saw her in the doorway and she's going to enter the big bedroom.
Q.The south bedroom?
A.Yes.
Q.Where was Speck at the time you saw Miss Davy coming in the south bedroom?
A.Speck was near the door and he is holding the door knob.  And when Davy came in he opened the door, so that he opened                     the door for Davy.
Q.And what happened when he opened the door and Miss Davy came in?
A.Miss Davy was surprised and she scream in a low voice.  And then Speck thrust the gun close towards Davy, Davy's body.
Q.What did Speck do then or what did Miss Davy do?
A.Then Speck told Miss Davy to sit down.
Q.What did he do at the time he told Miss Davy to sit down?
A.Then Miss Davy sat down between Miss Wilkening and Miss Schmale.
Q.Would you please step down and place the wooden block with the name "Davy" on it, in the approximate position in which                      Miss Davy sat?
A.(Illustrating)
She sat down on this side (indicating).
She squeeze in there.
(Thereupon, the witness resumed the witness stand.)
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  What did Speck do, after Miss Davy sat on the floor?
A.Then Speck sat down in the same place he sat before.
Q.Did he say anything at that time?
A.Then he asked Davy, "Do you have money?"  Then Davy answered, "Yes. I have $2.00."  And then she asked Speck, "Do                        you need coins?  It might help you."  But Speck answered, "No, I just want bills."
Q."I just want bills"?
A.Yes.
Q.Did you see where Miss Davy got the $2.00?
A. She got it in her purse.
Q.And did you see where her purse was at the time she sat down?
A.The purse was with her.
Q.After Miss Davy handed her money, the $2.00, to Speck, did you see what Speck did with the money?
A.Then Speck put it in the pocket.
Q.Did you see which pocket he put it in?
A.I did not notice what pocket he put it, but I just noticed that he put it somewhere around his waist line (indicating).
Q.Where was the gun at that time?
A.The gun was still in his right hand pointing toward us.
Q.What happened, after Miss Davy had given her money to Speck?
A.Then they have again a conversation.
Q.Were you a party to this conversation?  Did you say anything?
A.No, I did not say anything.
Q.Who was talking at that time?
A.Speck and the girls, the American girls.
Q.Did you understand anything that was said at that time or hear anything?
A.I cannot understand because I am not paying attention to them.
Q.Approximately how long did Speck talk to the girls, while he was seated on the floor?
A.Approximately five minutes.
Q.Then what did he do?
A.Then he stand up and get the bedsheet on Matusek's bed.
Q.What did you see Speck do when he got the bedsheet from Matusek's bunk?
A.Speck stand up near the sliding closet and Speck sliced the bedsheet with a knife.
Q.When was the first time that you saw the knife?
A.This was the first time I saw the knife.
Q.Did you see where he got the knife from?
A.I did not see where he got it.
Q.Could you describe the knife?
A.The knife -- All I can see was a shiny reflection on the knife.  I cannot see the handle.
Q.Was it a large knife or a small knife?
A.The knife -- All I can see was a shiny reflection on the knife.  I cannot see the handle.
Q.Was it a large knife or a small knife?
A.It's a small knife.  I think approximately about three to four inches.
Q.Where was Speck standing at the time he sliced the bedsheet from Miss Matusek's bed?
A.He is standing near the sliding closet in front of Miss Wilkening.
MR. MARTIN:  Let the record show that I have removed from People's Exhibit 13 for identification the wooden block, which the                  witness has placed in front of the seven girls, representing the defendant.  [Notice how the prosecutor speaks for the record              but also emphasizes and explains to the jurors what has happened.  He ostensibly does this for the record but uses the          opportunity for repetition as a persuasive device.]
Q.How did he slice the bedsheet?
A.He slice the bedsheet by holding it on his left hand and the knife in his right hand and he sliced it like this (indicating).
Q.Approximately how long did it take him to slice the bedsheet?
A.It took him about five minutes, slicing the bedsheet.
Q.Did you see what he did with each slice of the bedsheet?
A.He put it around his neck.
Q.Would you indicate in what manner he put it around his neck?
A.He just put it like that (indicating).  After he slice one bedsheet, he put it like that (indicating) and then another (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating he draped it behind his neck with the two ends over both shoulders.
THE WITNESS:  (Indicating.)
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  Where was the gun at the time he sliced the bedsheet?
A.The gun was placed on Miss Matusek's bed.
Q.The top bunk?
A.The top bunk.
Q.After Speck had spent five minutes slicing the bedsheet, what did you see him do next?
A.Then he squatted in front of Miss Wilkening and he tied Miss Wilkening's ankles.
Q.After he had tied Miss Wilkening's ankles, what did Speck do next?
A.Then Speck asked Miss Wilkening to turn around, and then Miss Wilkening turned around and Speck tied Miss Wilkening's                    wrists.
Q.When Miss Wilkening turned around to have her wrists tied, what was she facing?
A.She was facing the window.
Q.And, after Speck had tied her wrists together, what happened then?
A.Then Miss Wilkening turned around and faced Speck.
Q.Approximately how long did it take Miss Wilkening to be tied?
A.Approximately one to two minutes.
Q.Did she have any difficulty in turning back to face Speck after her wrists tied?
A.Yes, she had a difficulty to turn around, but she was able to do it.
Q.What did Speck do next?
A.Then he went near Miss Davy and then he tied Miss Davy's ankles.
Q.After he tied Miss Davy's ankles, what did he do then?
A.And then, when Speck was tying Miss Davy's ankles, Miss Davy said, "Why are you doing this?  We are student nurses."                      Then Speck answered, "Oh, you are a student nurse," and Speck was smiling during this time.
Q.Now, when Speck first tied Miss Wilkening, where was the gun?
A.The gun was laying down on the floor close to him on his right side.
Q.And what did he do with the gun when he tied Miss Davy?
A.Then he moved the gun -- When Speck moved toward Davy, he moved the gun closer to him on his right side.
Q.And, when he tied Davy, what did he do with the gun?
A.The gun was still on the floor.
Q.After Speck had tied Davy's ankles, what did she do?
A.Then Miss Davy turn around and Speck tied Miss Davy's wrists.
Q.Did Miss Davy also face the window in the south bedroom.
A.Yes.  She faced the window when Speck was tying her wrists.
Q.After Speck had tied Miss Davy's wrists, what happened then.
A.Then I see Miss Davy has a hardship to go back to face Speck, so Speck look at her and then pick up Miss Davy and put                      Miss Davy in Wilkening's bed.
Q.How did he pick Miss Davy?
A.He picked her up with the head on the other hand and the foot on the other hand.
Q.One arm around her head and one around her feet?
A.Yes.
MR. MARTIN:  Let the record show that I have removed the wooden block representing the sitting position of Gloria Davy.
Q.Miss Amurao, I would give you this wooden block, with the name "Davy," and ask you to place it in the position in which                          Richard Speck placed Gloria Davy on the bed.
(Thereupon, the witness stepped down from the witness stand.)
THE WITNESS:  A.  He put her here (illustrating).
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  And would you please indicate where her head was and where her feet were?
A.Her head was on the wall (indicating) and the feet was out there (indicating).
Q.She was facing the south of the bedroom, is that correct?
A.Yes.
(Thereupon, the witness resumed the witness stand.)
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  After Speck had placed Miss Davy in  Miss Wilkening's bunk, what did he do then?
A.Then Speck went, squatted in front of Miss Schmale, and he tied Nina Schmale's ankles.
Q.And where was the gun at that time?
A.The gun was still laying down on the floor near him.
Q.And, after he tied Nina Schmale's ankles, what did she do?
A.Then Nina Schmale turned around and Speck tied Nina Schmale's wrists.
Q.Did she also face the south window, when she turned around?
A.Yes.
Q.And, after he had tied her wrists, what did she do?
A.Then Nina Schmale turned around and faced Speck.
Q.Now, while Speck was tying the girls, what position did he take in front of them?
A.Will you repeat?
Q.Was he standing?
A.Speck?
Q.Yes.
A.Speck was sitting down in a squatting position.
Q.After he had tied Miss Schmale, what did he do then?
A.Then he moved near Miss Pasion and Speck tied Miss Pasion's ankles.
Q.Where was the gun at that time?
A.The gun was still laying on the floor near him.
Q.After Speck had tied Miss Pasion's ankles, what did she do?
A.Then Miss Pasion turned around and Speck tied her wrists.
Q.Did she face the south wall, also?
A.Miss Pasion was facing the south wall.
Q.And, after he tied her wrists, what did she do?
A.Then Miss Pasion turned around and Miss Pasion faced Speck.
Q.What did Speck do after that?
A.Then Speck moved toward Miss Matusek.
Q.How did Speck move from one girl to the next girl?
A.He is not standing up, but he just move by --  Can I demonstrate?
(Thereupon, the witness stepped down from the witness stand.)
THE WITNESS:  A.  After Speck had finished tying one girl here, then he starts to move like this (demonstrating).
Q.What did he do with the gun, as he moved from girl to girl?
A.Then he picked up the gun and he put it here, then (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  You may resume the stand.
(Thereupon, the witness resumed the witness stand.)
MR. MARTIN:  May the record reflect that the witness had assumed a squatting position and moved in the squatting position, from           one position to the next.
Q.After he had complete tying Miss Pasion, what did he do then?
A.Then Speck moved toward Miss Matusek.
Q.Did you hear Speck say anything, during the time that he was tying these girls?
A.When he was tying one of the girls, he told us, "Don't be afraid, I'm not going to kill you."
Q.Do you recall which girl he was tying when he said that?
A.I can't recall.
Q.What did he do, after he had finished tying Miss Pasion and had moved toward Miss Matusek?
A.He's tying Miss Matusek's ankles, when the doorbell rang downstairs.
Q.Did anybody say anything, when you heard the doorbell ring downstairs?
A.One of the girls said, "Somebody's downstairs."
Q.What did Speck do, after the girl said, "Someone is downstairs"?
A.Then Speck motioned Miss Gargullo and I to stand up, and we went out of the big bedroom going downstairs.
Q.Where was the gun at the time he motioned to you and Miss Gargullo?
A.Speck was holding the gun in his right hand during this time.
Q.Where was it pointed?
A.It was pointing toward Miss Gargullo.
Q.Who left the south bedroom first to go downstairs?
A.Miss Gargullo and I left first and Speck was behind us.
Q.What happened, when you got down to the first floor of the townhouse?
A.Then I opened the door, the front door, and I saw that there was nobody there, and so I told them there was nobody there.                       And when I'm opening the door, Speck was -- the gun was being stuck in my back.
Q.Would you please step down and indicate, on the first floor of People's Exhibit 13 for identification, where Speck was                              standing at the time you opened the front door?
(Thereupon, the witness stepped down from the witness stand.)
THE WITNESS:  A.  Speck was on the side right there (indicating), when I am opening the door.  And I saw there was nobody, so I                     told him there was nobody.
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating that Speck was standing toward the living room side of the front door.
Q.Would you place and "X" in the approximate position that Speck stood at the time you opened the front door?
A.(Marking.)
He was standing on the side (indicating), but the gun was being stuck in my back.
MR. MARTIN:  You may resume the stand.
(Thereupon, the witness resumed the witness stand.)
MR. MARTIN:  Let the record show that the witness has placed an "X", in blue ink, on the first floor of People's Exhibit 13 for                    identification near the small closet on the west side of the entrance door.
Q.Where was Miss Gargullo at the time you opened the front door?
A.Miss Gargullo was next to me.  We are in the same procedure.  I'm standing on this side (indicating) and Miss Gargullo was                   on this side (indicating).
Q.You were side by side?
A.Yes.
Q.What did you do, after you saw that there was no one in front of the house?
A.Then I told Speck there's nobody.  Then we went upstairs to the south bedroom.
Q.Who walked up the stairs first?
A.Miss Gargullo and I walked upstairs and Speck was behind us.  And I felt that the gun was still being stuck in my back.
Q.When you got to the second floor with Miss Gargullo, where did you go?
A.Then we went back to the same procedure that we have before in the south bedroom.
Q.What did Speck do, after you had gotten into the south bedroom?
A.Then he continued tying Miss Matusek.
Q.What part of Miss Matusek did he tie at that time?
A.When he went down, he was still tying the wrists.  Then he continued tying the wrists, and then Miss Matusek turned                             around and he tied Miss -- excuse me.  When he went down, he was tying the ankles.  He starting to tie the ankles.  And                       then, he went up, he finished tying the ankles, and then Miss Matusek turned around and he tied Miss Matusek's wrists.
Q.When she turned around did she face the south of the building?
A.Yes, Miss Matusek was facing the south wall.
Q.And, after Speck had finished tying Miss Matusek's wrists, what did she do?
A.Then Speck moved towards me.
Q.Was he still in a squatting position?
A.Yes, he was.
Q.What did Speck do when he moved toward you?
A.Then he tied my ankles.
Q.Where was the gun at the time he tied your ankles?
A.The gun was on his right side near him.
Q.How far was Speck's face from your face at the time he tied your ankles?
A.One to two feet away from me.
Q.Did you notice anything about him at that time?
A.When he was tying my ankles, I smelled alcohol on his breath.
Q.After he had tied your ankles, what did you do?
A.Then I turned around and then Speck tied my wrists.
Q.And, after he had tied your wrists, what did you do?
A.Then I turned around and I faced him.  He tied me tightly.
Q.Would you stand up and demonstrate the way in which your wrists were tied?
A.Yes, sir.  (Demonstrating.)
Q.Will you turn around so the jury can see?
A.He was tying my wrists like this (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating the wrists tied behind the back.
Q.What happened, after he moved to Miss Gargullo?
A.Then Speck tied Miss Gargullo's ankles.  And, when he was tying Miss Gargullo's ankles, he said, he asked, "Do you know                    karate?"
Q."Do you know karate?"
A.Yes.
Q.Did Miss Gargullo say anything at that time?
A.No, she did not say anything.
Q.After Speck had tied Miss Gargullo's ankles, what did she do?
A.Then Miss Gargullo turned around and Speck tied her wrists.
Q.Was she also facing the south of the building, when her wrists were tied?
A.Yes, she was facing south.
Q.What did she do then?
A.Then she turned around and she faced him.
Q.After Speck finished tying Miss Gargullo, what did he do then?
A.Then he stand up and he walked near Miss Wilkening.  But before the doorbell rang and after it rang, he always look out                          through the window where the drape is up, outside through the window.
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating the window on the east side of the south bedroom.
Q.Here?
A.Yes.
Q.How many different times did Speck look out the window on the east side where the drape was pulled over, while he was                        tying the girls?
A.I don't know how many times, but he is always looking out the window.
  And, when he was tying us, he had been making -- When he was having a conversation with us, he has been making a                           clicking sound with his gun.
Q.Now, when he stood up and walked to Miss Wilkening, what did he do?
A.Then he untied Miss Wilkening.
Q.Did you see what he used to untie her?
A.He used the same knife he used in slicing the bedsheet.
Q.And what part of his Wilkening did Speck untie?
A.He untied Miss Wilkening's ankles.
Q.And, after he had untied Miss Wilkening's ankles, what did he do then?
A.Then he grabbed Miss Wilkening's forearm and Speck led Miss Wilkening out of the big bedroom.
Q.Where was the gun at the time when he went to Miss Wilkening, if you saw it?
A.The gun was on his right hand.  And when they were walking out of the big bedroom, Speck was behind Miss Wilkening and                   the gun was pointed on the back of Miss Wilkening.
Q.When Miss Wilkening was taken out of the south bedroom by Speck, was the entrance door to the south bedroom open or                      closed?
A.It was slightly open.
Q.Would this be the proper position which the door was (indicating)?  Or, if it isn't, you can step down and place it in the                             proper position.
(Thereupon, the witness stepped down from the witness stand.)
THE WITNESS:  A.  It would be like this (indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating, for the record, that the door to the south bedroom is partially open.
(Thereupon, the witness resumed the  witness stand.)
MR. MARTIN:  Let the record show that I have removed the wooden block bearing the name "Wilkening" from the south bedroom.
Q.After Speck had taken Miss Wilkening from the south bedroom, did you hear anything?
A.After about one minute, I heard Miss Wilkening say "Ah."  It was like a sigh.
Q.Was that the noise that you heard?
A.Yes.
Q.Did you hear anything, after you heard the noise you just described?
A.No, I don't hear anything.
Q.Did you see anyone come into the south bedroom after Speck had taken Miss Wilkening out of there?
A.After Speck had taken Miss Wilkening out and after I heard -- after a few minutes, Miss Jordan and Miss Farris came in.
Q.Where were Mary Ann Jordan and Suzanne Farris, when you first saw them in the south bedroom?
A.I saw them in the door coming in the south bedroom.
Q.Where did they go, once they came in the south bedroom?
A.They rush up to Miss Pasion's bed.
Q.And how were they dressed at that time?
A.They were dressed in Bermuda shorts.
Q.Now, approximately how long was this after Speck had taken Miss Wilkening from the south bedroom?
A.Approximately, it's about 20 to 25 minutes.
Q.After Mary Ann Jordon and Suzanne Farris rushed over to the area of Miss Pasion's bed, what did you see next?
A.Then I saw Speck following Miss Jordan and Miss Farris.
Q.What did he do at the time?
A.Then Speck was standing near the sliding closet near the entrance door and he talked to Miss Jordan and Miss Farris, "You                    two come here."
Q.Did he have anything in his hand at the time?
A.The gun was still in his hand.
Q.Where was the gun pointed?
A.The gun was pointing toward Miss Jordan and Miss Farris.
Q.What did Miss Jordan and Miss Farris do, when Speck told them to come toward him?
A.They were very reluctant to go towards Speck.  But, later on, Speck called in a more louder voice, he told, "You two come                      here," and then Miss Jordan and Miss Farris came towards Speck.
Q.Where did you see them go?
A.When I saw them, they went out of the big bedroom.
Q.And where was Speck at the time that Miss Jordan and Miss Farris left the south bedroom?
A.Speck was behind Miss Jordan and Miss Farris.  He went out together  with Miss Jordan and Miss Farris.
Q.And where was the gun at that time?
A.The gun was pointing toward Miss Jordan and Miss Farris.
Q.When Speck left the south bedroom, with Miss Jordan and Miss Farris, in what position did he leave the south bedroom                         door?
A.Will you please repeat?
Q.After Speck had left the big bedroom behind Mary Ann Jordan and Suzanne Farris, what position was the door to the big                        bedroom in?
A.He closed the door.
Q.Was it closed completely or was it in the position it is in now?    (Indicating)
A.No, it was closed.
MR. MARTIN:  Let the record show that the door to the south bedroom of People's Exhibit 13 for identification is now in a closed              position.
Q.Did you hear anything, after Speck took Mary Ann Jordan and Suzanne Farris from the south bedroom?
A.I heard a noise as if Miss Jordan and Miss Farris were resisting.
Q.Could you describe the kind of noises that you heard?
A.I just heard a noise as if -- They were talking in a low voice, but I don't know what they were talking.  As if they were yelling                     but in low voices.
Q.Yelling in a low voice?
A.Yes.
MR. GETTY:  I object.  She wasn't sure.  I would like to know whether they were yelling or whether it was a low voice or --
THE COURT:  She said, "Yelling in a low voice," is what she said.
MR. GETTY:  That's what Martin said.
THE WITNESS:  A.Yelling in a low voice.
THE COURT:  That's what I heard her say.
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  When Speck left the south bedroom behind Miss Jordan and Miss Farris, did you see whether or not there was                      anything around his neck?
A.There is a strip of bedsheet around his neck.  When he left with Miss Wilkening, there is still a strip of bedsheet around his                      neck, and when he came in to get Miss Farris and Miss Jordan there is still a strip of bedsheet around his neck.
Q.How much time passed , before you again saw Speck?
A.Approximately about 20 minutes.
Q.Did you hear anything, before Speck came back into the south bedroom?
A.Before he came back to the south bedroom, I heard water running in the bathroom as if Speck was washing his hands.
Q.How long did the water run?
MR. GETTY:  I object to that.  It's a conclusion.  Mr. Martin is constantly leading.  I suggest that he ask the witness to describe just        what happened at certain times.
THE COURT:  I don't think he was leading, but the last conclusion, like he was washing his hands, may be stricken.  She heard the        water running may remain.
Put a question.
MR. MARTIN:  Thank you.
Q.Did Speck then come into the south bedroom?
A.Yes.
MR. GETTY:  Now, that 'is a leading question, your Honor.
THE COURT:  All right.
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  What happened next?
A.Speck came inside the south bedroom, and then he went near Miss Nina Schmale and he picked up Nina Schmale.
                 Before --
Q.How did he pick up Nina Schmale?
A.Before he picked up Nina Schmale, he untied Nina Schmale's ankles.
Q.What did he use to untie her ankles?
A.The knife that he used, the same knife that he used when he sliced the bedsheet.  And, before he picked up Nina Schmale,                     he pointed the gun to us, he said, like that (demonstrating).  He did not say anything, but he pointed the gun                                         (demonstrating).
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating a movement of the gun from one girl to the next girl.
THE WITNESS:  Nodding.
Q.How did he take Nina Schmale from the south bedroom?
A.He untied Nina Schmale's ankles and then he grabbed Nina Schmale's forearm.
Q.What did he do then?
A.Then they went out of the big bedroom.
Q.Who went out first?
A.Nina Schmale went out and Speck was behind Nina Schmale and the gun was being pointed at Nina Schmale.
Q.And what position did Speck leave the entrance door to the south bedroom, after he took Nina Schmale out?  Was the door                    completely closed or was it partially open or was it open.
A.When Nina Schmale and Speck left?
Q.Yes.
A.They leave the door slightly open.
Q.Would that be about correct (demonstrating)?
A.Just like before.
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating the door is partially open.
Let the record show that I have removed a wooden block with the name "Schmale" from People's Exhibit 13 for identification.
Q.Did you hear anything, after Speck took Miss Schmale from the south bedroom?
A.No.
Q.Did Speck return to the south bedroom?
A.Before Speck returned to the south bedroom, Miss Matusek, Miss Pasion, Miss Gargullo and myself hide ourselves.  We                       change our positions.
Q.How long was Speck gone from the south bedroom with Nina Schmale?
A.Speck has been with Nina Schmale for about twenty minutes.
MR. MARTIN:  Let the record show that I have removed the wooden blocks containing the names "Pasion, Matusek, Amurao," and          "Gargullo" from People's Exhibit 13 for identification.
Q.Miss Amurao, you testified that during the time the defendant was out of the room with Miss Schmale, you and Miss                              Gargullo, Miss Pasion and Miss Matusek changed your positions?
A.Yes.
Q.I would ask you to step down and take these gray wooden blocks, with the names "Matusek, Pasion, Amurao" and                               "Gargullo" printed on them and place them in the positions in which you four girls moved, while Speck was out of the room.
(Thereupon, the witness stepped down from the witness stand.)
THE WITNESS:  A.  Miss Matusek moved between Miss Wilkening and Miss Davy's bed.
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  In which direction was Miss Matusek's head facing?
A.The head facing the window.
Q.Toward the south?
A.Yes.
   And she was laying on her stomach
   And Miss Gargullo went here (indicating).
Q.And was Miss Gargullo lying on her stomach or on her back.
A.On her stomach?
Q.Which way was her head facing?
A.She was facing the south wall.
   And Miss Pasion went near Miss Gargullo (indicating).
Q.In which direction is Miss Pasion's head facing?
A.Her head was facing the wall.
Q.South?
A.The south wall.
Q.And was she lying on her stomach or on her back?
A.On her back.  On her stomach, excuse me.
Q.Would you indicate what position you took, while Speck was out of the room with Miss Schmale?
A.Then I took this position (indicating).
Q.Indicating being under Valentina Pasion's bed, is that right.
A.Yes.
   And my head was protruding, sticking out.
Q.Were you lying on your stomach or your back?
A.I'm lying on my stomach.
Q.Would you demonstrate for the court and jury the manner in which you got under Miss Pasion's bed, while your wrists and                      ankles were tied?  Use this as an example of Miss Pasion's bed (indicating).  Face the jury. [Note: From the standpoint of                   the direct examiner, this is the essence of tell and show.]
A.(Demonstrating). I am like this (demonstrating).  And then I do like that (demonstrating).
MR. MARTIN:  Thank you.
(Thereupon, the witness resumed the witness stand).
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating, for the record, that the witness rolled to the side and then rolled backwards on her stomach.
Q.Where was Miss Davy at the time you and Miss Pasion, Miss Gargullo and Miss Matusek changed your positions?
A.Miss Davy was still lying on Miss Wilkening's bed.
Q.Was she tied at that time?
A.Yes, she was tied.
Q.What happened, after you had changed your positions?
A.Then, before Speck came to the south bedroom, I heard the water running again in the bathroom.
Q.For how long a period of time did the water run?
A.A few moments only.
Q.Where was Speck the next time you saw him?
A.The next time I saw him, Speck was dragging Miss Pasion going out of the big bedroom.
Q.Would you describe the way in which he dragged Miss Pasion out of the south bedroom?
A.Speck hold Miss Pasion's arm on the side (indicating) and then he dragged Miss Pasion out of the big bedroom.
Q.Did he untie her?
A.He did not untie Miss Pasion.
Q.When he dragged her out, was she in a sitting or standing position?
A.Miss Pasion was in a sitting position and she was facing the west wall.
MR MARTIN:  Mr. Reporter, would you please mark this photograph People's Exhibit 14 for identification?
(Said photograph was marked People's Exhibit No. 14 for identification).
[Note - a visual]
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  Miss Amurao, I show you a photograph which has been marked People's Exhibit 14 for identification and I ask                        you if this photograph truly and accurately portrays a view of Valentina Pasion's bed, facing toward the west, as it existed                        on July 13th and 14th, 1966.
A.Yes, it is the same.
Q.And this is the bed that you went under?
A.Yes.
Q.Did you hear anything, after Speck had taken Miss Pasion from the south bedroom?
A.After about two minutes, I heard Miss Pasion said, "Ah," more louder than the two other American girls.
Q.Did Speck return to the south bedroom at that time?
A.Yes, he returned to the south bedroom.  But, before he returned to the south bedroom, the water in the bathroom runs again.
Q.For how long a period of time?
A.Just a few moments only.
Q.And approximately how long was Speck out of the south bedroom with Miss Pasion.
A.Approximately about 20 minutes.
MR. MARTIN:  Let the record show that I have removed the wooden block with the name "Pasion" from People's Exhibit 13 for                             identification.
Q.What happened, when Speck returned to the south bedroom, after taking Miss Pasion out?
A.Then I saw him going near Miss Gargullo.  And then when I saw him he was near Miss Gargullo, then I put my face down on                    the floor.  And when I looked up I saw that he was carrying Miss Gargullo.
Q.Did you see whether she was tied or untied?
A.Miss Gargullo was tied up.
Q.And how was he carrying her?
A.He carry her by his arms (indicating).
Q.He picked her up completely?
A.Yes, completely.
Q.What happened, after you saw Speck carrying Miss Gargullo from the south bedroom?
A.Then after about five minutes, I heard Miss Gargullo said "Masikit."
Q.Could you tell the court and jury what "Masikit" means in your native language?
A.It means it hurts.
Q.It hurts?
A.Yes.
Q.Did Speck return to the south bedroom, after he had taken Miss Gargullo out?
A.Before he returned to the south bedroom, the water in the bathroom ran again.  And then he went back to the south                                bedroom.
Q.How long was he out of the south bedroom with Miss Gargullo?
A.He was out with Miss Gargullo for about 30 minutes.
MR. MARTIN:  May the record reflect that I have removed the wooden block with the name "Gargullo" from People's Exhibit 13 for                       identification?
Q.When Speck returned to the south bedroom, after having taken Miss Gargullo out, what happened then?
A.When I saw him, he was already near Miss Matusek.
Q.What position were you in at that time?
A.I'm still on the same position I have before.
Q.Did you see or hear anything, when Speck went near Miss Matusek?
A.When I saw that Speck was already near Miss Matusek, I put my face down and then I heard Speck ask, "Are you the girl                      with the yellow dress?"  And then when  -- And then I heard Miss Matusek ask, "Will you please untie my ankles first?"
Q.Did you see anything at that time?
A.When he was near Matusek, I saw him.
Q.What did he do, if you could see?
A.When I heard, "Will you please untie my ankles?"  then, when I look up, then, I found they are coming out from the big                           bedroom.
Q.Who went out first?
A.I did not notice who went out first.
Q.Where was your head at this time?
A.My head was facing down on the floor.
Q.On the floor?
A.Yes.
Q.After Speck had taken Patricia Matusek out of the south bedroom, did you hear anything?
A.Then I heard Speck said, "Lie down here."  And then, after about a minute, Speck said, "Lie down here," in louder voice.
Q.How much time passed between the first time he said, "Lie down" and he said "Lie down here"?
A.About one to two minutes.
Q.What did you do, after Speck had taken Miss Matusek from the south bedroom.
A.Then I transferred my position.  I put my entire body under Miss Pasion's bed and my face was facing the sliding closet.
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating, with the wooden block marked "Amurao" that the figure is completely under Miss Pasion's bed, with the                      head facing toward the --
THE WITNESS:  The sliding --
MR. MARTIN:  The sliding closet.
Q.Is that right?
A.Yes.
MR. MARTIN:  May the record reflect that the wooden block bearing the name "Matusek" is removed from People's Exhibit 13 for                        identification?
Q.Did Speck again come into the south bedroom that night?
A.Yes, he did.
Q.How long was he gone from the bedroom with Patricia Matusek?
A.He was gone for about 35 to 40 minutes.
Q.Did you hear any noise during that time, other than the noise you described?
A.No, I did not heard anything.
Q.What happened, when Speck return to the south bedroom.
A.Then, when Speck returned to the south bedroom, he sat near Miss Davy.  He sat on Miss Wilkening's bed where Davy was                    in.
Q.Which direction was Speck facing, when he sat on Miss Wilkening's bed?
A.Speck was facing Miss Davy's face.  He was facing the door, the entrance door.
Q.Indicating that he was in this position (indicating)?
A.Yes.  He was there and he was facing the entrance door.
Q.Did you see where Miss Davy's hands were at that time?
A.Her hands were on the bed.  Miss Davy was lying on the side and Miss Davy was facing the west wall.
Q.She was turned towards the west, facing the west?
A.She was facing the west wall.
Q.And were her hands still tied behind her back?
A.Yes, they were still tied up.
Q.What happened, when Speck sat on the bed next to Gloria Davy?
A.Then I saw --
MR. GETTY:  Objection to leading.  I don't like to constantly --
THE COURT:  What happened next?
MR. GETTY:  Yes.
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  Tell us what happened next.
A.Then Speck stand up and I saw that he was removing Miss Davy's jeans.
Q.What did you see?
A.I saw Speck was pulling off Miss Davy's jeans.
Q.Will you demonstrate, with your hands, what you saw him do?
A.He just pull it out like that (demonstrating).
Q.On which side of the Miss Wilkening's bed was Speck on, when he did that?
A.He was on the side of the sliding closet, when he pulled off Miss Davy's jeans.
Q.To the east?
A.Yes, the east.
Q.What happened then?
A.Then I heard a pants being unzipped.
Q.And what happened after that?
A.Then, when I look at them, I saw that Speck was already on top of Miss Davy.
Q.Then what happened?
A.THE COURT:Do you want a few moments recess?
MR. MARTIN:  Would you like a recess?
THE COURT:  It's a little after four and we'll take a short recess.
MR. MARTIN:  Thank you, your Honor.
THE COURT:  We will air this courtroom out.  It's very hot in here.
(A recess was taken.)
(Thereupon, the following proceedings were had within the presence and hearing of the jury:)
MR. MARTIN:  May I continue, your Honor?
THE COURT:  You may.
MR. MARTIN:  Thank you.
Q.Miss Amurao, you were describing what occurred when you saw the defendant, Richard Speck, on top of Gloria Davy. Will                       you tell us what you saw or what you heard?
A.I saw Speck was on top of Miss Davy.  Then when I saw he was right on top of Davy, I put my face down. Then I heard                           Speck ask, "Are you doing this before?"  After a few minutes Speck asked, "Will you please put your legs around my back?"
Q.Where was your head at the time?
A.My head was facing down on the floor.
Q.Could you estimate how long you heard the bedsprings move in Miss Wilkening's bed at that time?
A.I heard it for about 20 to 25 minutes.
Q.Was your head down during that time?
A.Yes.
Q.When did you next look up?
A.About five minutes after the bedsprings stopped.  I looked up and I saw that Davy and Speck were not there anymore.
Q.What did you do then?
A.Then I crawled -- I transferred my position from Miss Pasion's bed to the lower bunk of Miss Davy's bed.
Q.How did you do that?
A.By crawling.
Q.Would you please step down and indicate on People's Exhibit 13 the position that you moved into after Speck and Miss                         Davy left the south bedroom?
(At this time the witness stepped down from the witness stand.)
THE WITNESS:  From here I move out there.  (Indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  Would you take the block with your name on it and place it in the position that you moved to?
A.I moved like that, then I put my entire body under the bed.
Q.Under the bottom bunk of Miss Davy's bed?
A.Which way was your head facing?
A.My head was facing this wall.
Q.And were you lying on your stomach or on your back?
A.I'm lying on my stomach.
Q.Was there anything alongside the bottom of the bottom bunk of Miss Davy?
A.There's a blanket on this side, from here up to there, up to there.  (Indicating).
MR. MARTIN:  Indicating along the bottom of the bottom bunk of Miss Davy's bed.
Q.Did the blank touch the floor?
A.Yes, it touched the floor.
Q.Was that alongside you?
A.It was from here up to there, and you can see out from there.
MR. MARTIN:  You may resume the witness stand.
(At this time the witness resumedthe witness stand.)
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  What is the next thing that happened after you had crawled under the bottom bunk of Miss Davy's bed?
A.Then I heard -- after I crawled under the bottom bunk of Miss Davy's bed it was -- then I heard the man going, I heard the                          footsteps, it entered in the south bedroom, and I saw that it was Speck.
Q.What happened then?
A.Then I heard coins jingling in the purse.
Q.What happened after that.
A.Then Speck left and he leave the entrance door open, and he turn off the light.  When he came in he turned on the light but                     when he left, he turned off the light.
Q.Now, during the time before that when you were in the room with the other girls, the light was off?
A.Yes, the light was off, but there is a light coming in from outside, through the park.
Q.When he left the south bedroom, was this door completely open?
A.Yes, it was open.
Q.Indicating in that position?
A.Yes, it is.
Q.Fully open.  And then the light was turned off?
A.Yes.
Q.How long was Speck out of the room with Gloria Davy?
A.It was about 45 or 50 minutes.  That's the longest time he was out with the other girls.
Q.How long did you stay under the bottom bunk of Miss Davy's bed, approximately?
A.Approximately, I stayed there for about two to two and a half hours.
Q.And what happened after that period of time?
A.Then the alarm of the clock went off.
Q.And in what bedroom was that alarm?
A.It is in the south bedroom.
Q.Do you know what time it was when the alarm went off?
A.It was 5:30.
Q.What did you do then?
A.Then I started to untie myself.
Q.How did you untie yourself?
A.I first untied my wrists by pulling them apart like that.  (Indicating).
Q.Behind your back?
A.Yes, behind my back.
Q.How long did it take you to get your wrists loose?
A.It take me about 10 to 15 minutes.
Q.After you untied your wrists, what did you do?
A.Then I untied my ankles.
Q.What happened then?
A.Then the alarm went off again at 5:30.
Q.Excuse me.  What time was it when you first heard the alarm?
A.It was 5:00 o'clock, excuse me, 5:00 o'clock in the morning.
Q.You heard the second alarm at 5:30.
A.Yes, 5:30.
Q.What did you do after you had heard the second alarm at 5:30.
A.Then I crawled towards Miss Wilkening's bed, under Wilkening's bed, and I looked out and I saw that there was nobody                          moving.
Q.What did you do then?
A.Then I stand up and I went to my bedroom and on my way to my bedroom I saw a body lying in the bathroom, but I don't                          know who was there.  And then my bedroom door was widely open and I saw three bodies lying with blood and I only                              recognized Miss Jordan and Miss Wilkening.
Q.What did you do when you went into your bedroom, the front, east bedroom after you had seen the three bodies there?
A.After I saw the three bodies lying down on the floor with blood, I closed the -- my bedroom door because I was afraid Speck                      might still be there, and then I went up to my bed and I opened the glass window and I screamed for help.
Q.Indicating this window in the north part of the east bedroom here?  Do you want to step down?
(At the time the witness stepped down from the witness stand.)
THE WITNESS:  I opened this.  There is a glass window here and I opened it.  (Indicating.)
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  And where were you at the time you were screaming for help?
A.I was here, sitting down, and screaming for help.
Q.On you bed, on the top bunk?
A.Yes, sir.
Q.How long did you scream, in a sitting position, with the window open?
A.I screamed there for about five minutes and nothing.
Q.What did you do then?
A.Then I jump off to the ledge.
Q.You climbed down to the ledge on 100th Street?
A.Yes.
Q.What did you do on the ledge?
A.Then I screamed for help.  I screamed for about 20 minutes.
(At this time the witness resumed the witness stand.)
MR. MARTIN:  Q.  Now, after you had screamed down on the ledge for about 20 minutes, did you see anyone?
A.I saw a lady across the street.
Q.How were you dressed at that time?
A.I am dressed in a short nightgown.
Q.What happened after you had seen the lady across the street?
A.Then I asked the lady to please call the house mother, but before this lady called for the house mother, Miss Judy Dytkon                       saw me on the ledge.
Q.Where was Judy Dytkon when you first saw her?
A.Miss Judy Dytkon was going out from 2315.
Q.And what happened when you saw Judy Dytkon?
A.Then I went back to my bedroom, going to the stairway, and then I went down, and then Miss Judy Dytkon bring me to                            2315.
Q.Where did you see Miss Judy Dytkon after you had gone back into the townhouse and out of your bedroom?
A.She was on the stairway.
Q.Indicating on what part of the stairway between the first and second floor on People's Exhibit 13?
A.She was --
Q.Was it in the middle?
A.About two steps, two stairs.
Q.She was on the second stair?
A.Yes.
Q.And what did she do?
A.Then she brought me to 2315.
Q.And that's where other student nurses were living, and the housemother?
A.Yes.
Q.Did you talk to anybody when you got to 2315?
A.Then I talked to a policeman, and student nurses who were there.
Q.How many policemen did you talk to at 2315 that morning?
A.First I talk to a policeman who was wearing a uniform and they was talking there in the kitchen of 2315, and after that I                           talked to a policeman in the living room and then we transferred to the bedroom in 2315.
Q.Were you taken from 2315 East 100th Street that morning, Thursday, July 14th?
A.Will you please repeat the question?
Q.Did you go somewhere from 2315, that morning?
A.After the policeman had talked to me then I went to the hospital, South Chicago Community Hospital.
Q.And what happened when you arrived at the hospital?
A.Then I went to the hospital room and I sleep.
Q.Miss Amurao, you and I have talked about what happened in the townhouse that night on about five or six different times,                         have we not?
       A:       Yes, we have.
      MR. MARTIN:  Thank you. I pass the witness.
    [Notice how the direct examiner makes it clear at the very end of his examination that he has discussed the case with                      the witness on previous occasions.  This takes away much of the sting that might come from questions on
cross-examination about the direct examiner rehearsing the witness.]

FINIS

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sample direct examination
THE SOLE SURVIVOR
The Chicago Nurses Murders
Richard Speck killed 8 student nurses
on the Southeast Side of Chicago.
copyright © Ray Moses 1998

Richard Speck's Life
(2)(3)(4)(5)

Prosecutor Bill Martin, the man who conducted the masterful examination of the sole survivor,  figures prominently in this documentary.

If you read the direct examination of the surviving nurse, at left, you may feel ashamed at being a man. Speck's conduct personified the worst of the worst in us. 

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